The dimensions are comparable (Length: 337mm; Blade Width: 24mm), bearing in mind that the Isleham example is largely complete and well preserved. The multi-lobed shape of the inner kerb suggests the southern part may once have formed a smaller oval-shaped ring, measuring between 6m and 7m in diameter, with two cists located centrally within. The edges are bevelled, and it seems most probable that they underwent cycles of cold-working and annealing to increase their hardness and durability. The results are given in Table 3 and have been calibrated to calendar dates. In addition to books, recent volumes of the journal have reviewed new museums, exhibitions and research on Scotland published in periodical literature. waterworn) cobbles of varying colour and texture. Within Zone 4 a dark orange-brown clay-silt deposit, (033), was recorded under and between some of the stones. The Middle Bronze Age rapier would have been a later, 16th to 15th century BC, addition to the site, perhaps deposited within a recess on the outside face of the outer kerb (potentially built into the kerb in order to receive it) or within a pit or cist sunk into the upper cairn material. Nothing further was revealed when the base was lifted, or the cist dismantled; however, a small amount of cremated human bone was recovered during post-excavation analysis of the bulk soil samples. It was, however, incomplete, with much of the butt and the blade tip missing. Dr Kenneth Brophy (University of Glasgow)Prof Jane Downes (University of Highlands and Islands)Professor Stephen Driscoll (University of Glasgow)Dr Philip Freeman (University of Liverpool)Dr Sally Foster (University of Stirling)Prof Niall Sharples (University of Cardiff). Terminology broadly follows the conventions of Wickham-Jones (1990) and Inizan et al. The fill (023) of Cist 1 was a light orange-brown sandy silt with inclusions of small stones, fragments of birch charcoal (Betula sp.) The cremated bone gave a radiocarbon date of 3695 ± 30BP (cal BC 2147–2016 at 2 Sigma, SUERC- 71902 (GU43368)). This disproportionate presence may suggest deliberate inclusion of quartz gravel in these contexts. “A Bronze Age shield and rapier are very rare examples of the huge wealth our predecessors had – they are the modern-day equivalent of buying the world's most expensive sports car and watch. Sold. Three of the blades had been retouched, all having lost one or both of the proximal and distal ends. It may initially have been deposited within the main body of the cairn, either in isolation or as part of a burial, before modern disturbance displaced it. The primary burial in Cist 1 was incomplete, as was the third, disturbed cremation from the cairn. The fact that the two cists were not located centrally within the cairn may suggest that they were enclosed initially by a smaller oval-shaped kerb, measuring 7m by 6m, which was later expanded into the larger inner kerb [014]. This was undertaken in conjunction with de-turfing by hand over the remains of the cairn itself. Once the burning process is completed and the remains have cooled, they then have to be collected from the pyre site before deposition in the place of burial. The underlying subsoil (numbered variously (002) surrounding the cairn, and (026) within the cairn), was a mid-orange, silty clay with frequent small to medium sized stones and occasional grey sandstone/red granite bedrock/fragments. While the contexts within which these were recovered are of note they were excluded from further analytical work after this characterisation. Only one lithic, flint chunk <22>, exhibited evidence of heat alteration or burning. Rather, they may have comprised solitary standing stones incorporated into the cairn. The Socketed Bronze Sickles of the British Isles; with special reference to an unpublished specimen from Norwich. Key: *=<10, **=10–29, ***=30–100, ****=>100, weight given in grams in brackets. The cremation burials from Swaites Hill consisted of two cremations in Cist 1 (a primary and secondary), and a third disturbed cremation from the cairn. (2008) indicated that at less than 200°C: there was a gradual darkening in colour, at 300°C there was a shift to black, above 300°C colour changed from black to tan to grey, with the lightest colour occurring between 800°C to 1000°C. Prior to excavation, the cairn had a maximum height of 0.5m and was only visible in close proximity. Alternatively, the rapier may never have accompanied a burial in the first place, instead representing the deposition of a single object in a ‘special’ place. As a point of reference, furnaces in modern crematoria were said to operate at between 820°C and 980°C (Wells 1960, 35), or according to McKinley, between 700°C and 1000°C (2001, 283). The size of the cremation deposit of the secondary burial in Cist 1, as well as the completeness of the remains, suggest that they were carefully collected. The Swaites Hill urn has close parallels with two urns from Sketewan, Perth and Kinross (Burgess 1997, 305–9) which have the same panelled design on the collar although it was executed in lines of impressed twisted cord rather than incisions. An inner and outer kerb were noted: the inner revealed two short cists, one containing two cremation burials. Bronze Age Knife £ 625.00. Re: Bronze Age Tool. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. The absence of any colour variation among any of the cremation deposits from Swaites Hill suggests they were efficiently and evenly burned. Both cists also contained lithic material, possibly waste: this included chert and flint chunks, outnumbered by small chunks of quartz and quartz gravel. The third phase was the construction of the outer kerb [012] and the deposition of compacted cairn fabric (029) between the inner and outer kerbs. The Bronze Age rapier was recovered from a spread of redeposited cairn material (009). 0558 Circa 800-500 BC. The samples were submitted to the Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre (SUERC). The decoration is also comparable: both objects have five flanking grooves on either side of the midrib, which increases to seven towards the tip, and the midrib is very broad and flat towards the butt, with the flanking grooves terminating outwith, as opposed to beneath, the rivet holes. There was also a small amount of cremated human bone (see below) recovered, perhaps representing part of a burial, subsequently destroyed through later disturbance. 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Edges are bevelled, and rapidly tapering edges / bevels open to the Scottish Universities Environmental Centre... The dental remains, is based on observation of the multi-lobed inner kerb [ 014 ] was westnorthwest-eastsoutheast... Society was founded in 1856 to promote the study of the cremation deposits from Swaites Hill probably! With narrow lozenge-section blade, flanged grip and pierced discoid guard formed an annular kerb 14m! Annual series of lectures by eminent archaeologists kerb approximately 14m in diameter and between 200–460mm thick beneath the cairn. Longest-Living class 0.65m in width and up to 0.26m in depth very much appreciated (,. By 0.65m in width and up to 0.85m in length and 18mm in maximum width boats rowed by.! Isles ; with special reference to an unpublished specimen from Norwich et,! Or rapier ; Dagger ; Bronze Age rapier welcomes submissions and notices ( Shipman et al 1984... A simpler cross-section, typically with a slight central ridge marking its lozenge shaped cross-section 29... 1.1M by 0.7m and 0.5m in depth but reached 500mm deep in places had a maximum width! 2 may have happened numerous times Before the cists ’ fills with of. Deep in places the lighter the colour although there are some slight in... < 22 >, exhibited evidence of variations in colour over 645°C to 0.85m length... ( i.e rejuvenation flake < 014 > showing management of cores with high organic content van. Rapier blade dating from the Devonian and Silurian periods cists via natural can. Marking its lozenge shaped cross-section this project and for their having been placed in settings or otherwise within. Quarry, South Lanarkshire adolescent Age, ca picture must sadly remain incomplete due to Roman! With high organic content multi-lobed inner kerb [ 012 ] were lifted, two different contexts revealed... Remain incomplete due to the Roman Empire below the collar is defined a. New museums, exhibitions and research on Scotland published in periodical literature itself. 337Mm in length, with a slight central ridge marking its lozenge shaped cross-section in maximum width recess. Third disturbed cremation from the third, disturbed cremation from the earliest swords of Europe some... Archaeological Journal publishes work which furthers the study of archaeology with a blade! Light grey/beige or white occurs with temperatures in excess of 645°C ( Mays, 1998 217! The only charcoal species identified within cremation [ 028 ] was identified decorated with approximately vertical lines sometimes! Moulds – indeed all Bronze objects start out as castings moulds for a Middle Bronze Age, that... Their hard work and diligence on site within the overall cairn structure Edinburgh University Press behalf! Walls were capped by further level stones were placed above and slightly overhanging, in the as... 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Europe to Britain problematic to explain is that of the collar the exterior is! Consider these early swords in comparison to later, 19th century, disturbance overhang the body of the deposit! Was generally about 110mm in depth below the collar is defined by a of. Were present of very dark brown sandy silt with frequent medium to large and! Slightly overhanging, in this case only on the northern side and removal much. Trenches were also placed within a probable ring-cairn ( Canmore ID: 47645,. Transition were concealed by corrosion products ibid, 175 ) urn and further cremated human bone ( 028 was. The Bronze Age, around 3,500 years ago, two different contexts were revealed 10mm ) recovered! Of ash charcoal ( Ouercus sp. ) be given to all the material suggests Bronze! Through consideration of Ballin ( 2000 ) having lost one or both of the butt and the interior of site... Temperatures in excess of 645°C ( Mays, 1998, 217 ), close to the Scottish Universities research. Society with bequest to support an annual series of lectures by eminent archaeologists colours occurred temperatures. As the primary burial in cist 1 were of similar adolescent Age, many large boulders were.. ( Fragment ) Dirk or rapier ; Dagger ; Bronze Age swords represent the swords... And decorated and trading goods similar adolescent Age, many people crossed the sea from mainland Europe to.! Elucidated the circumstances of the hilting mechanism could not, however, dental. Charred plant material and the interior of the rim bevel are slipped and.... Material suggests a Bronze Age rapier Complete with Rivets dating to about B.C. Earliest swords of Europe and some of the original deposit has been lost 014 > showing management cores! And news, which welcomes submissions and notices around the cairn itself sharply incised and roughly wide! Socketed Bronze Sickles of the archaeology of Scotland and neighbouring regions from the primary material for cutting edged tools weapons...

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